According to the logarithms, the natural logarithm of a variable $x$ is mathematically written as $\ln{(x)}$ or $\log_{e}{(x)}$. Hence, the indefinite integration of the natural logarithmic function with respect to $x$ can be written in one of the following forms in the integral calculus.

$(1).\,\,\,$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$

$(2).\,\,\,$ $\displaystyle \int{\log_{e}{(x)}}\,dx$

There is no integral rule for the natural logarithmic function in the integral calculus. Hence, it is not possible to find the indefinite integration of the natural logarithmic function directly by an integral rule. Now, we have to think about an alternative method.

$\displaystyle \int{\log_{e}{(x)}}\,dx$

The natural logarithmic function $\ln{x}$ and the differential element $dx$ are multiplying in the integration. Hence, we can try the integration by parts rule in this integration problem.

$\displaystyle \int{u}\,dv$ $\,=\,$ $\displaystyle \int{\log_{e}{(x)}}\,dx$

Assume $u \,=\, \log_{e}{x}$

Let’s differentiate the natural logarithm of $x$ with respect to $x$ to find the derivative of logarithm. It can done by the derivative rule of logarithms.

$\implies$ $\dfrac{du}{dx} \,=\, \dfrac{d}{dx}{\,\Big(\log_{e}{x}\Big)}$

$\implies$ $\dfrac{du}{dx} \,=\, \dfrac{1}{x}$

$\,\,\,\therefore\,\,\,\,\,\,$ $du \,=\, \dfrac{1}{x} \times dx$

Similarly, assume $dv \,=\, dx$

Now, integrate both sides of the equation to find the value of $v$ in $x$.

$\implies$ $\displaystyle \int{}dv \,=\, \displaystyle \int{}dx$

$\implies$ $v+c \,=\, x+c$

$\implies \require{cancel}$ $v+\cancel{c} \,=\, x+\cancel{c}$

$\,\,\,\therefore\,\,\,\,\,\,$ $v \,=\, x$

In this step, let’s substitute the values in the integration by parts formula for finding the indefinite integration of the natural logarithm in integral calculus.

$\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $\Big(\log_{e}{x}\Big) \times x$ $\,-\,$ $\displaystyle \int{\Big(x \times \dfrac{1}{x}\Big)}\,dx$

$\implies$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $x\log_{e}{x}$ $\,-\,$ $\displaystyle \int{\dfrac{x \times 1}{x}}\,dx$

$\implies$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $x\log_{e}{x}$ $\,-\,$ $\displaystyle \int{\dfrac{x}{x}}\,dx$

$\implies$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $x\log_{e}{x}$ $\,-\,$ $\displaystyle \int{\dfrac{\cancel{x}}{\cancel{x}}}\,dx$

$\implies$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $x\log_{e}{x}$ $\,-\,$ $\displaystyle \int{1}\,dx$

Now, use the integral rule of one for finishing the process of the integration.

$\implies$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $x\log_{e}{x}$ $\,-\,$ $(x+c_1)$

$\implies$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $x\log_{e}{x}-x-c_1$

$\implies$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $x\log_{e}{x}-x+c$

$\,\,\,\therefore\,\,\,\,\,\,$ $\displaystyle \int{\ln{(x)}}\,dx$ $\,=\,$ $x(\log_{e}{x}-1)+c$

Latest Math Topics

Jan 06, 2023

Jan 03, 2023

Jan 01, 2023

Dec 26, 2022

Dec 08, 2022

Latest Math Problems

Nov 25, 2022

Nov 02, 2022

Oct 26, 2022

Oct 24, 2022

Sep 30, 2022

A best free mathematics education website for students, teachers and researchers.

Learn each topic of the mathematics easily with understandable proofs and visual animation graphics.

Learn how to solve the maths problems in different methods with understandable steps.

Copyright © 2012 - 2022 Math Doubts, All Rights Reserved