Square matrices are appeared with zeros. In a special case, a square matrix contains zero as non-diagonal elements but it contains elements only on principal diagonal. Due to having elements on leading diagonal and having zeros as non-diagonal elements, the square matrix is recognized as a diagonal matrix.
The matrix is having elements only on principal diagonal but observe the elements on non-diagonal areas. All are zero elements at non-diagonal areas. Therefore, this type of matrix is called a diagonal matrix. The diagonal elements can be either equal or unequal elements.
It is simply expressed as
is a square matrix of order . It is having element in five rows and five columns.
The matrix is having two types of elements. One type of elements are nonzero elements and remaining all are zeros. Nonzero elements ( and ) are placed on the leading diagonal and remaining non-diagonal elements are zeros. Therefore, the matrix is known as a diagonal matrix.
The diagonal matrix is written in simple form